According to an analysis published on September 15, none of the world’s major economies, including the entire G20 countries, have a climate plan that meets their obligations under the 2015 Paris Agreement. Scientists are constantly warning that greenhouse emissions should be reduced and immediate actions have to be taken.
The policies of 36 countries were analyzed by the watchdog Climate Action Tracker (CAT). It was found that the Gambia was the only nation among all 37 to be 1.5 compatible. A few smaller emitters were only included in the study; there may be other developing countries in the world on track as well.
More than 150 countries under the 2015 Paris accord agreed to limit the increase in global temperatures to well below 2 degrees above pre-industrial temperatures — ideally to 1.5 degrees. According to scientists, 2 degrees is a critical threshold for some of the Earth’s ecosystems and would cause more extreme temperatures.
CAT reported that progress had stopped after many world leaders made ambitious new pledges to reduce greenhouse emissions during April’s US President Climate Leader Summit. According to Niklas Höhne, a founding partner of the NewClimate Institute, a CAT partner, “In May, after the Climate Leaders’ Summit and the Petersburg dialogue, we reported that there appeared to be good momentum with new climate action commitments.” He further said since there has been little to no improvement. Nothing has changed much.
According to the report, six countries, including the UK, have a nearly efficient climate policy. This means they are not yet consistent with 1.5-degree alignment but could be with minor improvements. The target the UK has set is in line with 1.5 degrees but its policies in practice don’t meet the target. The analysis found that Japan, European Union, the US the overall climate plan are not sufficient to reach the 1.5-degree goal. Their domestic targets are very close to where they needed to be, but their international policies are not.
Previously the US was termed as insufficient by the CAT under former President Donald Trump. He shortly before the end of his term withdraw from the Paris Agreement. The US domestic emission-reducing target has been the most efficient. The US is still insufficient to meet the target set by CAT. The target rating takes into account the country’s responsibility and capability.
Countries submitted pledges to cut emissions in Paris Agreement called Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). By July 31, 2021, all the countries that have signed in the agreement were supposed to update their NDCs, but more than 70 countries have not submitted them yet. Turkey, Saudi Arabia, India are among the countries that missed the July 31 deadline. China has announced a new target, but no written submission has been made to the UN. Without actually increase their pledge, many countries submitted the update.
Mexico and Brazil submitted the same target they introduced in 2015. The pledges made by these countries have become weak as they made changes to the baseline assumption, the analysis showed. At the same time, Russia has submitted the report, which looks more substantial on the page, but there is no meaningful change.
According to the analysis, the primary concern is Vietnam, Switzerland, Singapore, Russia, New Zealand, Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, Australia. These countries have failed to lift ambitions at all and have submitted lower purposes for 2030. These countries need to remake their policy.
The report found the continued use of coal remains a significant policy problem. India and China have substantial coal pipelines. Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan and South Korea are also planning to use coal in the future. According to the report, Australia said past 2030, it would keep mining coal and investing money in new gas exploration and infrastructure, which is a matter of concern, according to the report. Thailand has plans to use new gas instead of coal.
Many countries are trying to find out alternative sources of energy so that less coal is used. Gas is a fossil fuel and any investment into gas today becomes a risk for the future, according to CAT. Interest in green hydrogen has grown exponentially. Many hydrogen projects are coming up, which are produced from gas. Carbon is produced by hydrogen produced by gas and is inconsistent with reaching net zero.
What is this Paris agreement all about –
It is a legally binding international treaty on the issue climate change and on December 12, 2015, was adopted by 196 countries. This agreement on November 4, 2016, entered into force. The purpose od the Paris Agreement is to limit global warming below 2, compared to pre-industrial levels, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
The countries are aiming to reach the peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible they can so that they achieve the long-term temperature goal. By mid-century to achieve a climate-neutral world. In the process of climate change, this agreement is a landmark because for the 1st time all nations were bonded by an agreement for a common cause to make an effort to reduce climate change.
Implementation of the Paris Agreement requires economic and social transformation based on the best available science. It works on a 5-year cycle of climate action carried out by countries. After that, the nations will have to submit their plans for climate actions known as NDCs. Countries mention the steps they will take to reduce greenhouse emissions to reach the target made in the agreement.
Some countries in the world won’t achieve their pledge. According to a panel of world-class climate scientists, some of the world’s largest carbon emitters will continue to increase their emissions. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap solar radiation in the atmosphere, and this causes the temperature to rise, rises sea level melts ice, ocean acidification, and more extreme climates.
The world needs to reach net-zero by 2050, to keep the warming under 1.5 degrees. Net-zero refers to a state when the amount of greenhouse gas emitted is the same as the amount removed from the atmosphere. So far, 130 countries pledge to cut emissions to net-zero. According to the report, if all the 130 countries followed up on their plans, warming would still reach 2 degrees. If they stick to their policies, temperatures will likely be 2.4 degrees higher by the end of the century. Temperatures are already 1.2 degrees higher than before. Humans are burning large amounts of fossil fuels.
Many people worldwide are suffering because of climate changes, but still, countries are lagging behind the action needed to be taken. Greenhouse emission is increasing day by day. The governments need to take immediate action to achieve the net-zero target.